Migrating BSK Scripts to Python 3

With release Basilisk v0.8.x onward the software framework now supports using Python 3. The purpose of this document is to illustrate how to migrate Python 2 BSK scripts such that they will function in both Python 3 and Python 2. For the time being Python 2 is still supported as a depreciated functionality. But, python scripts committed to Basilisk should be written such that they support Python 3 and 2 for now. This document serves as compilation of BSK common syntactical adjustments needed to use Python 3. It is not a comprehensive list of the differences between Python 2 and Python 3.

Dividing Scalars

Python 2 and 3 treat the devide operator / differently if two integers operated on. Thus:

a = 3/2

resulted in an integer value of 1 in Python 2, but yields a float value of 1.5 in Python 3. To get the same result in Python 3 and 2, you can use either of the following options which work in both version of Python:

a = 3//2
a = 3./2

Without modification the user will see an error in Python 3 complaining about an unsupported type conversion:

File "/Users/hp/Documents/Research/Basilisk/dist3/Basilisk/simulation/sim_model/sim_model.py", line 4351, in logThisMessage
    return _sim_model.SimModel_logThisMessage(self, messageName, messagePeriod)
NotImplementedError: Wrong number or type of arguments for overloaded function 'SimModel_logThisMessage'.
  Possible C/C++ prototypes are:

Returning Lists Instead of Iterables

Python 3 removed iteritems() method. The same functionality can be achieved in both Python 2 and 3 with items().

Range, Map, Zip

In Python 2 range() returns a list, while in Python 3 it returns an iterable object. To preserve functionality, cast as a list:



Print is treated as a statement in Python 2 and strictly a function in Python 3. For both 3 and 2:


A sample warning is:

File "scenarioAttitudeFeedbackRW.py", line 715
    print dataUsReq
SyntaxError: Missing parentheses in call to 'print'. Did you mean print(dataUsReq)?


External python packages will give warnings in pytest if python strings include ‘’ where x is not a pythonic valid escape character. These warnings did not appear using Python 2, when using strings as input for latex or for other text processing, they should be made a raw string by appending an r:


A sample warning is:

/Users/hp/Documents/Research/Basilisk/src/tests/testScripts/../scenarios/scenarioAttitudeFeedbackRW.py:91: DeprecationWarning: invalid escape sequence \o
  label='$\omega_{BR,' + str(idx) + '}$')

Pyswice Imports

Changes to BSK module importing has changed the pyswice importing convention to be completely explicit:


from Basilisk import pyswice


from Basilisk.pyswice.pyswice_spk_utilities import spkRead